Job 12:14 MHC 12 With The Ancient Is Wisdom; And In Length Of Days Understanding   13 With Him Is Wisdom And Strength, He Hath Counsel And Understanding   14 Behold, He Breaketh Down, And It Cannot Be Built Again: He Shutteth Up A Man, And There Can Be No Opening.   15 Behold, He Withholdeth The Waters, And They Dry Up: Also He Sendeth Them Out, And They Overturn The Earth.   16 With Him Is Strength And Wisdom: The Deceived And The Deceiver Are His.   17 He Leadeth Counsellors Away Spoiled, And Maketh The Judges Fools.   18 He Looseth The Bond Of Kings, And Girdeth Their Loins With A Girdle.   19 He Leadeth Princes Away Spoiled, And Overthroweth The Mighty.   20 He Removeth Away The Speech Of The Trusty, And Taketh Away The Understanding Of The Aged.   21 He Poureth Contempt Upon Princes, And Weakeneth The Strength Of The Mighty.   22 He Discovereth Deep Things Out Of Darkness, And Bringeth Out To Light The Shadow Of Death.   23 He Increaseth The Nations, And Destroyeth Them: He Enlargeth The Nations, And Straiteneth Them Again.   24 He Taketh Away The Heart Of The Chief Of The People Of The Earth, And Causeth Them To Wander In A Wilderness Where There Is No Way.   25 They Grope In The Dark Without Light, And He Maketh Them To Stagger Like A Drunken Man.       This Is A Noble Discourse Of Jobs Concerning The Wisdom, Power, And Sovereignty Of God, In Ordering And Disposing Of All The Affairs Of The Children Of Men, According To The Counsel Of His Own Will, Which None Dares Gainsay Or Can Resist. Take Both Him And Them Out Of The Controversy In Which They Were So Warmly Engaged, And They All Spoke Admirably Well; But, In That, We Sometimes Scarcely Know What To Make Of Them. It Were Well If Wise And Good Men, That Differ In Their Apprehensions About Minor Things, Would See It To Be For Their Honour And Comfort, And The Edification Of Others, To Dwell Most Upon Those Great Things In Which They Are Agreed. On This Subject Job Speaks Like Himself. Here Are No Passionate Complaints, No Peevish Reflections, But Every Thing Masculine And Great.       I. He Asserts The Unsearchable Wisdom And Irresistible Power Of God. It Is Allowed That Among Men There Is Wisdom And Understanding, . But It Is To Be Found Only With Some Few, With The Ancient, And Those Who Are Blessed With Length Of Days, Who Get It By Long Experience And Constant Experience; And, When They Have Got The Wisdom, They Have Lost Their Strength And Are Unable To Execute The Results Of Their Wisdom. But Now With God There Are Both Wisdom And Strength, Wisdom To Design The Best And Strength To Accomplish What Is Designed. He Does Not Get Counsel Or Understanding, As We Do, By Observation, But He Has It Essentially And Eternally In Himself, . What Is The Wisdom Of Ancient Men Compared With The Wisdom Of The Ancient Of Days! It Is But Little That We Know, And Less That We Can Do; But God Can Do Every Thing, And No Thought Can Be Withheld From Him. Happy Are Those Who Have This God For Their God, For They Have Infinite Wisdom And Strength Engaged For Them. Foolish And Fruitless Are All The Attempts Of Men Against Him : He Breaketh Down, And It Cannot Be Built Again. Note, There Is No Contending With The Divine Providence, Nor Breaking The Measures Of It. As He Had Said Before , He Takes Away, And Who Can Hinder Him? So He Says Again. What God Says Cannot Be Gainsaid, Nor What He Does Undone. There Is No Rebuilding What God Will Have To Lie In Ruins; Witness The Tower Of Babel, Which The Undertakers Could Not Go On With, And The Desolations Of Sodom And Gomorrah, Which Could Never Be Repaired. See . There Is No Releasing Those Whom God Has Condemned To A Perpetual Imprisonment; If He Shut Up A Man By Sickness, Reduce Him To Straits, And Embarrass Him In His Affairs, There Can Be No Opening. He Shuts Up In The Grave, And None Can Break Open Those Sealed Doors Shuts Up In Hell, In Chains Of Darkness, And None Can Pass That Great Gulf Fixed.       II. He Gives An Instance, For The Proof Of This Doctrine In Nature, . God Has The Command Of The Waters, Binds Them As In A Garment , Holds Them In The Hollow Of His Hand ; And He Can Punish The Children Of Men Either By The Defect Or By The Excess Of Them. As Men Break The Laws Of Virtue By Extremes On Each Hand, Both Defects And Excesses, While Virtue Is In The Mean, So God Corrects Them By Extremes, And Denies Them The Mercy Which Is In The Mean. 1. Great Droughts Are Sometimes Great Judgments: He Withholds The Waters, And They Dry Up; If The Heaven Be As Brass, The Earth Is As Iron; If The Rain Be Denied, Fountains Dry Up And Their Streams Are Wanted, Fields Are Parched And Their Fruits Are Wanted, . 2. Great Wet Is Sometimes A Great Judgment. He Raises The Waters, And Overturns The Earth, The Productions Of It, The Buildings Upon It. A Sweeping Rain Is Said To Leave No Food, . See How Many Ways God Has Of Contending With A Sinful People And Taking From Them Abused, Forfeited, Mercies; And How Utterly Unable We Are To Contend With Him. If We Might Invert The Order, Would Fitly Refer To Noahs Flood, That Ever Memorable Instance Of The Divine Power. God Then, In Wrath, Sent The Waters Out, And They Overturned The Earth; But In Mercy He Withheld Them, Shut The Windows Of Heaven And The Fountains Of The Great Deep, And Then, In A Little Time, They Dried Up.       III. He Gives Many Instances Of It In Gods Powerful Management Of The Children Of Men, Crossing Their Purposes And Serving His Own By Them And Upon Them, Overruling All Their Counsels, Overpowering All Their Attempts, And Overcoming All Their Oppositions. What Changes Does God Make With Men! What Turns Does He Give Them! How Easily, How Surprisingly!       1. In General : With Him Are Strength And Reason So Some Translate It, Strength And Consistency With Himself: It Is An Elegant Word In The Original. With Him Are The Very Quintessence And Extract Of Wisdom. With Him Are Power And All That Is; So Some Read It. He Is What He Is Of Himself, And By Him And In Him All Things Subsist. Having This Strength And Wisdom, He Knows How To Make Use, Not Only Of Those Who Are Wise And Good, Who Willingly And Designedly Serve Him, But Even Of Those Who Are Foolish And Bad, Who, One Would Think, Could Be Made No Way Serviceable To The Designs Of His Providence: The Deceived And The Deceiver Are His; The Simplest Men That Are Deceived Are Not Below His Notice; The Subtlest Men That Deceive Cannot With All Their Subtlety Escape His Cognizance. The World Is Full Of Deceit; The One Half Of Mankind Cheats The Other, And God Suffers It To Be So, And From Both Will At Last Bring Glory To Himself. The Deceivers Make Tools Of The Deceived, But The Great God Makes Tools Of Them Both, Wherewith He Works, And None Can Hinder Him. He Has Wisdom And Might Enough To Manage All The Fools And Knaves In The World, And Knows How To Serve His Own Purposes By Them, Notwithstanding The Weakness Of The One And The Wickedness Of The Other. When Jacob By A Fraud Got The Blessing The Design Of Gods Grace Was Served; When Ahab Was Drawn By A False Prophecy Into An Expedition That Was His Ruin The Design Of Gods Justice Was Served; And In Both The Deceived And The Deceiver Were At His Disposal. See . God Would Not Suffer The Sin Of The Deceiver, Nor The Misery Of The Deceived, If He Knew Not How To Set Bounds To Both And Bring Glory To Himself Out Of Both. Hallelujah, The Lord God Omnipotent Thus Reigns; And It Is Well He Does, For Otherwise There Is So Little Wisdom And So Little Honesty In The World That It Would All Have Been In Confusion And Ruin Long Ago.       2. He Next Descends To The Particular Instances Of The Wisdom And Power Of God In The Revolutions Of States And Kingdoms; For Thence He Fetches His Proofs, Rather Than From The Like Operations Of Providence Concerning Private Persons And Families, Because The More High And Public The Station Is In Which Men Are Placed The More The Changes That Befal Them Are Taken Notice Of, And Consequently The More Illustriously Does Providence Shine Forth In Them. And It Is Easy To Argue, If God Can Thus Turn And Toss The Great Ones Of The Earth, Like A Ball In A Large Place As The Prophet Speaks, , Much More The Little Ones; And With Him To Whom States And Kingdoms Must Submit It Is Surely The Greatest Madness For Us To Contend. Some Think That Job Here Refers To The Extirpation Of Those Powerful Nations, The Rephaim, The Zuzim, The Emim, And The Horites Mentioned , In Which Perhaps It Was Particularly Noticed How Strangely They Were Infatuated And Enfeebled: If So, It Is Designed To Show That Whenever The Like Is Done In The Affairs Of Nations It Is God That Does It, And We Must Therein Observe His Sovereign Dominion, Even Over Those That Think Themselves Most Powerful, Politic, And Absolute. Compare This With That Of Eliphaz, , &c. Let Us Gather Up The Particular Changes Here Specified, Which God Makes Upon Persons, Either For The Destruction Of Nations And The Planting Of Others In Their Room Or For The Turning Out Of A Particular Government And Ministry And The Elevation Of Another In Its Room, Which May Be A Blessing To The Kingdom; Witness The Glorious Revolution In Our Own Land Twenty Years Ago, In Which We Saw As Happy An Exposition As Ever Was Given Of This Discourse Of Jobs. 1. Those That Were Wise Are Sometimes Strangely Infatuated, And In This The Hand Of God Must Be Acknowledged : He Leadeth Counsellors Away Spoiled, As Trophies Of His Victory Over Them, Spoiled Of All The Honour And Wealth They Have Got By Their Policy, Nay, Spoiled Of The Wisdom Itself For Which They Have Been Celebrated And The Success They Promised Themselves In Their Projects. His Counsel Stands, While All Their Devices Are Brought To Nought And Their Designs Baffled, And So They Are Spoiled Both Of The Satisfaction And Of The Reputation Of Their Wisdom. He Maketh The Judges Fools. By A Work On Their Minds He Deprives Them Of Their Qualifications For Business, And So They Become Really Fools; And By His Disposal Of Their Affairs He Makes The Issue And Event Of Their Projects To Be Quite Contrary To What They Themselves Intended, And So He Makes Them Look Like Fools. The Counsel Of Ahithophel, One In Whom This Scripture Was Remarkably Fulfilled, Became Foolishness, And He, According To His Name, The Brother Of A Fool. See , The Princes Of Zoan Have Become Fools; They Have Seduced Egypt, Even Those That Are The Stay Of The Tribes Thereof. Let Not The Wise Man Therefore Glory In His Wisdom, Nor The Ablest Counsellors And Judges Be Proud Of Their Station, But Humbly Depend Upon God For The Continuance Of Their Abilities. Even The Aged, Who Seem To Hold Their Wisdom By Prescription, And Think They Have Got It By Their Own Industry And Therefore Have An Indefeasible Title To It, May Yet Be Deprived Of It, And Often Are, By The Infirmities Of Age, Which Make Them Twice Children: He Taketh Away The Understanding Of The Aged, . The Aged, Who Were Most Depended On For Advice, Fail Those That Depended On Them. We Read Of An Old And Yet Foolish King, . 2. Those That Were High And In Authority Are Strangely Brought Down, Impoverished, And Enslaved, And It Is God That Humbles Them : He Looseth The Bond Of Kings, And Taketh From Them The Power Wherewith They Ruled Their Subjects, Perhaps Enslaved Them And Ruled Them With Rigour; He Strips Them Of All The Ensigns Of Their Honour And Authority, And All The Supports Of Their Tyranny, Unbuckles Their Belts, So That The Sword Drops From Their Side, And Then No Marvel If The Crown Quickly Drops From Their Head, On Which Immediately Follows The Girding Of Their Loins With A Girdle, A Badge Of Servitude, For Servants Went With Their Loins Girt. Thus He Leads Great Princes Away Spoiled Of All Their Power And Wealth, And That In Which They Pleased And Prided Themselves, . Note, Kings Are Not Exempt From Gods Jurisdiction. To Us They Are Gods, But Men To Him, And Subject To More Than The Common Changes Of Human Life. 3. Those That Were Strong Are Strangely Weakened, And It Is God That Weakens Them And Overthrows The Mighty. . Strong Bodies Are Weakened By Age And Sickness; Powerful Armies Moulder And Come To Nothing, And Their Strength Will Not Secure Them From A Fatal Overthrow. No Force Can Stand Before Omnipotence, No, Not That Of Goliath. 4. Those That Were Famed For Eloquence, And Entrusted With Public Business, Are Strangely Silenced, And Have Nothing To Say : He Removeth Away The Speech Of The Trusty, So That They Cannot Speak As They Intended And As They Used To Do, With Freedom And Clearness, But Blunder, And Falter, And Make Nothing Of It. Or They Cannot Speak What They Intended, But The Contrary, As Balaam, Who Blessed Those Whom He Was Called To Curse. Let Not The Orator Therefore Be Proud Of His Rhetoric, Nor Use It To Any Bad Purposes, Lest God Take It Away, Who Made Mans Mouth. 5. Those That Were Honoured And Admired Strangely Fall Into Disgrace : He Poureth Contempt Upon Princes. He Leaves Them To Themselves To Do Mean Things, Or Alters The Opinions Of Men Concerning Them. If Princes Themselves Dishonour God And Despise Him, If They Offer Indignities To The People Of God And Trample Upon Them, They Shall Be Lightly Esteemed, And God Will Pour Contempt Upon Them. See . Commonly None More Abject In Themselves, Nor More Abused By Others When They Are Down, Than Those Who Were Haughty And Insolent When They Were In Power. 6. That Which Was Secret, And Lay Hidden, Is Strangely Brought To Light And Laid Open : He Discovers Deep Things Out Of Darkness. Plots Closely Laid Are Discovered And Defeated; Wickedness Closely Committed And Artfully Concealed Is Discovered, And The Guilty Are Brought To Condign Punishment Secret Treasons , Secret Murders, Secret Whoredoms. The Cabinet-councils Of Princes Are Before Gods Eye, . 7. Kingdoms Have Their Ebbings And Flowings, Their Waxings And Wanings; And Both Are From God : He Sometimes Increases Their Numbers, And Enlarges Their Bounds, So That They Make A Figure Among The Nations And Become Formidable; But After A While, By Some Undiscerned Cause Perhaps, They Are Destroyed And Straitened, Made Few And Poor, Cut Short And Many Of Them Cut Off, And So They Are Rendered Despicable Among Their Neighbours, And Those That Were The Head Become The Tail Of The Nations. See . 8. Those That Were Bold And Courageous, And Made Nothing Of Dangers, Are Strangely Cowed And Dispirited; And This Also Is The Lords Doing : He Taketh Away The Heart Of The Chief Of The People, That Were Their Leaders And Commanders, And Were Most Famed For Their Martial Fire And Great Achievements; When Any Thing Is To Be Done They Are Heartless, And Ready To Flee At The Shaking Of A Leaf. . 9. Those That Were Driving On Their Projects With Full Speed Are Strangely Bewildered And At A Loss; They Know Not Where They Are Nor What They Do, Are Unsteady In Their Counsels And Uncertain In Their Motions, Off And On, This Way And That Way, Wandering Like Men In A Desert , Groping Like Men In The Dark, And Staggering Like Men In Drink, . Note, God Can Soon Nonplus The Deepest Politicians And Bring The Greatest Wits To Their Wits End, To Show That Wherein They Deal Proudly He Is Above Them.       Thus Are The Revolutions Of Kingdoms Wonderfully Brought About By An Overruling Providence. Heaven And Earth Are Shaken, But The Lord Sits King For Ever, And With Him We Look For A Kingdom That Cannot Be Shaken.

Poaceae pollen frequency was elevated in this sample, suggesting processing and possibly parching grass seeds. Small quantities of Podocarpus, High-spine Asteraceae, Cirsium, Liguliflorae, Caltha-type, Cleome, Cyperaceae, Polygonaceae, Rosaceae, and Sphaeralcea pollen indicate that local vegetation also included these plants. Liguliflorae, Caltha-type, Cyperaceae, and Polygonaceae pollen are indicators of wetland vegetation in the vicinity of the site. In addition, three grinding stones were recovered from test pits at the MV-II site. A finer resolution of childhood and adolescence diets through serial dentine sampling of six women show high intra-individual variability within the life phases, in particularly in δ13C values.

For example, every person is hit by about half a million cosmic rays every hour. It is not uncommon for a cosmic ray to collide with an atom in the atmosphere, creating a secondary cosmic ray in the form of an energetic neutron, and for these energetic neutrons to collide with nitrogen atoms. When the neutron collides, a nitrogen-14 (seven protons, seven neutrons) atom turns into a carbon-14 atom (six protons, eight neutrons) and a hydrogen atom (one proton, zero neutrons). To determine year of death, the researchers used radiocarbon levels in soft tissues.

All these samples are supposed to be millions of years old and should contain no detectable radiocarbon, according to the standard geological time scale. The decay of radiocarbon follows the exponential decay law, whereby the percentage decrease in the number of parent atoms per unit time is constant. After each half-life of 5,730 years, the number of parent radiocarbon atoms remaining is halved. Since the atmosphere is composed of about 78 percent nitrogen,2 a lot of radiocarbon atoms are produced—in total about 16.5 lbs. These rapidly combine with oxygen atoms (the second most abundant element in the atmosphere, at 21 percent) to form carbon dioxide (CO2). Most 14C is produced in the upper atmosphere where neutrons, which are produced by cosmic rays, react with 14N atoms.

This method is limited, because it’s only applicable to volcanic rocks, but is useful for older archaeology because it has a date range of about 4.3 billion to 100,000 years ago. When an animal or plant dies, it will not take in any more carbon, and the 14C present will begin to decay. We can thus measure how long it’s been since the animal or plant died by comparing the presence of 14C with the known half-life.

How has radiocarbon dating changed archaeology?

The carbon dioxide is absorbed by plants, and the plants are eaten by animals, thus contaminating every living thing on earth with radioactive carbon. There are a number of ways to enter into a career in studying radiocarbon dating. Typically, a Master’s Degree in chemistry is required because of the extensive lab work.

By taking archaeological sites from the Bavarian alpine foothill for comparison and calculating a local range that encompasses the entire region, we avoided some of the interpretation problems. Radiocarbon atoms are essentially atmospherically ‘tagged’ carbon atoms with a finite lifetime of about 8,267 years on average. The radiocarbon concentration (14C/C ratio) of a given Earth system reservoir, e.g. the ocean, will depend on how long it takes for its carbon pool to be exchanged (directly or indirectly) with the atmosphere, on average. For example, an atom of carbon resides in the deep ocean far longer than it does in the surface ocean, before it is replaced by a ‘new’ carbon atom from the atmosphere.

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Radiocarbon activity of materials in the background is also determined to remove its contribution from results obtained during a sample analysis. Background radiocarbon activity is measured, and the values obtained are deducted from the sample’s radiocarbon dating results. Background samples analyzed are usually geological in origin of infinite age such as coal, lignite, and limestone. To obtain a radiocarbon age the sample activity or the 14C/12C ratio must be compared to a standard material of known age. Both the OX-II and ANU have been extensively cross-calibrated to OX-I and can be used to normalize a sample for radiocarbon dating.

Challenges of the method

Shumla has discovered some paintings that are up to 30 feet high, which means the artists had to use some kind of scaffolding to complete their work. Young-earth creationists allow for quite a bit of diversification within created kinds. Some creationists see significant RussianCupid does work diversification of created kinds like the “horse kind” or baramin into today’s horses, donkeys and zebras. The 5-minute animation in the University of Colorado press release, “How horses changed history,” offers some reasons for the slow adoption of horses for riding.

In the absence of firm evidence that the international airline industry is engaged in a vast conspiracy to overcharge its customers, a delayed phone call seems a small price to pay for even the tiniest reduction in the chances of a Plane Crash. But you’ll still be allowed to use your personal computer during a flight. And while that remains the case, airlines can hardly claim that logic has prevailed. Some engineers, however, such as Bruce Donham of Boeing, say that common sense suggests phones are more risky than laptops.

6 Summary of post-excavation issues encountered

So if scientists believe that a creature lived millions of years ago, then they would need to date it another way. Typically, the most stable form of an element is the most common in nature. There are some elements with no stable form that are always radioactive, such as uranium.

Hence, once formed, it combines with oxygen and mixes into the biosphere just like 12C. Plant eating animals (herbivores and omnivores) get their carbon by eating plants. All animals in the food chain, including carnivores, get their carbon indirectly from plant material, even if it is by eating animals which themselves eat plants. The net effect of this is that all living organisms have the same radiocarbon to stable carbon ratio as the atmosphere. Long tree-ring chronologies are rare (there are only two that I am aware of which are of sufficient length to be of interest to radiocarbon) and difficult to construct.